(a) Food Procurement and Safety in Adult Care Homes:
(1) The kitchen, dining and food storage areas shall be clean, orderly and protected from contamination.
(2) All food and beverage being procured, stored, prepared or served by the facility shall be protected from contamination.
(3) All meat processing shall occur at a USDA-approved processing plant.
(4) There shall be at least a three-day supply of perishable food and a five-day supply of non-perishable food in the facility based on the menus, for both regular and therapeutic diets.
(b) Food Preparation and Service in Adult Care Homes:
(1) Sufficient staff, space and equipment shall be provided for safe and sanitary food storage, preparation and service.
(2) Table service shall include a napkin and non-disposable place setting consisting of at least a knife, fork, spoon, plate and beverage containers. Exceptions may be made on an individual basis and shall be based on documented needs or preferences of the resident.
(3) Hot foods shall be served hot and cold foods shall be served cold.
(4) If residents require feeding assistance, food shall be maintained at serving temperature until assistance is provided.
(c) Menus in Adult Care Homes:
(1) Menus shall be prepared at least one week in advance with serving quantities specified and in accordance with the Daily Food Requirements in Paragraph (d) of this Rule.
(2) Menus shall be maintained in the kitchen and identified as to the current menu day and cycle for any given day for guidance of food service staff.
(3) Any substitutions made in the menu shall be of equal nutritional value, appropriate for therapeutic diets and documented to indicate the foods actually served to residents.
(4) Menus shall be planned to take into account the food preferences and customs of the residents.
(5) Menus as served and invoices or other receipts of purchases shall be maintained in the facility for 30 days.
(6) Menus for all therapeutic diets shall be planned or reviewed by a registered dietitian. The facility shall maintain verification of the registered dietitian’s approval of the therapeutic diets which shall include an original signature by the registered dietitian and the registration number of the dietitian.
(7) The facility shall have a matching therapeutic diet menu for all physician-ordered therapeutic diets for guidance of food service staff.
(d) Food Requirements in Adult Care Homes:
(1) Each resident shall be served a minimum of three nutritionally adequate, palatable meals a day at regular hours with at least 10 hours between the breakfast and evening meals.
(2) Foods and beverages that are appropriate to residents’ diets shall be offered or made available to all residents as snacks between each meal for a total of three snacks per day and shown on the menu as snacks.
(3) Daily menus for regular diets shall include the following:
(A) Homogenized whole milk, low fat milk, skim milk or buttermilk: One cup (8 ounces) of pasteurized milk at least twice a day. Reconstituted dry milk or diluted evaporated milk may be used in cooking only and not for drinking purposes due to risk of bacterial contamination during mixing and the lower nutritional value of the product if too much water is used.
(B) Fruit: Two servings of fruit (one serving equals 6 ounces of juice; ½ cup of raw, canned or cooked fruit; 1 medium-size whole fruit; or ¼ cup dried fruit). One serving shall be a citrus fruit or a single strength juice in which there is 100% of the recommended dietary allowance of vitamin C in each six ounces of juice. The second fruit serving shall be of another variety of fresh, dried or canned fruit.
(C) Vegetables: Three servings of vegetables (one serving equals ½ cup of cooked or canned vegetable; 6 ounces of vegetable juice; or 1 cup of raw vegetable). One of these shall be a dark green, leafy or deep yellow three times a week.
(D) Eggs: One whole egg or substitute (e.g., 2 egg whites or ¼ cup of pasteurized egg product) at least three times a week at breakfast.
(E) Protein: Two to three ounces of pure cooked meat at least two times a day for a minimum of 4 ounces. A substitute (e.g., 4 tablespoons of peanut butter, 1 cup of cooked dried peas or beans or 2 ounces of pure cheese) may be served three times a week but not more than once a day, unless requested by the resident.
Note: Bacon is considered to be fat and not meat for the purposes of this Rule.
(F) Cereals and Breads: At least six servings of whole grain or enriched cereal and bread or grain products a day. Examples of one serving are as follows: 1 slice of bread; ½ of a bagel, English muffin or hamburger bun; one 1 ½ -ounce muffin, 1- ounce roll, 2-ounce biscuit or 2-ounce piece of cornbread; ½ cup cooked rice or cereal (e.g., oatmeal or grits); ¾ cup ready-to-eat cereal; or one waffle, pancake or tortilla that is six inches in diameter. Cereals and breads offered as snacks may be included in meeting this requirement.
(G) Fats: Include butter, oil, margarine or items consisting primarily of one of these (e.g., icing or gravy).
(H) Water and Other Beverages: Water shall be served to each resident at each meal, in addition to other beverages.
(e) Therapeutic Diets in Adult Care Homes:
(1) All therapeutic diet orders including thickened liquids shall be in writing from the resident’s physician. Where applicable, the therapeutic diet order shall be specific to calorie, gram or consistency, such as for calorie controlled ADA diets, low sodium diets or thickened liquids, unless there are written orders which include the definition of any therapeutic diet identified in the facility’s therapeutic menu approved by a registered dietitian.
(2) Physician orders for nutritional supplements shall be in writing from the resident’s physician and be brand specific, unless the facility has defined a house supplement in its communication to the physician, and shall specify quantity and frequency.
(3) The facility shall maintain an accurate and current listing of residents with physician-ordered therapeutic diets for guidance of food service staff.
(4) All therapeutic diets, including nutritional supplements and thickened liquids, shall be served as ordered by the resident’s physician.
(f) Individual Feeding Assistance in Adult Care Homes:
(1) Sufficient staff shall be available for individual feeding assistance as needed.
(2) Residents needing help in eating shall be assisted upon receipt of the meal and the assistance shall be unhurried and in a manner that maintains or enhances each resident’s dignity and respect.
(g) Variations from the required three meals or time intervals between meals to meet individualized needs or preferences of residents shall be documented in the resident’s record.